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Physical Flow

Physical flows represent transfers of water, sediment and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) between physical stores. 14 physical flows have been identifed:

1. Atmosphere-Farm: Precipitation, atmospheric deposition of N

2. Farm-Atmosphere: Evapotranspiration, emissions of N2, N2O, NH3

3. Out of Catchment-Farm: Water transfers in eg. by water companies into reservoirs or through extraction from unbounded boreholes, fertiliser, feed bought in, livestock transfers

4. Farm-Out of Catchment: Water transfers out, harvest and products out, livestock transfers

5. Farm-Soil: Infiltration of surface water, seed planting, fertiliser, manure and slurry applications, direct inputs from livestock waste

6. Soil-Farm: Grass and feed crops to livestock, harvested crops to storage

7. Farm-River: Runoff, sediment and nutrient transfers through infrastructure drain connections to river network

8. Soil-River: Hillslope hydrological transfers through runoff pathways, soil and particulate nutrient erosion and sediment and associated P and N transfer through runoff pathways, leaching of NO3 through hillslope pathways

9. Soil-Groundwater: Percolation of soil water to groundwater aquifer, leaching of NO3 to groundwater

10. Groundwater-Soil: Changes in groundwater table saturating soil with groundwater and NO3

11. Out of Catchment-Groundwater: Transfers of groundwater and NO3 through aquifer (unbounded at catchment scale)

12. Groundwater-Out of Catchment: Transfers of groundwater and NO3 through aquifer (unbounded at catchment scale)

13. Groundwater-River: Influx of groundwater and NO3 to river when groundwater levels high

14. River-Groundwater: Recharge of groundwater and NO3 when groundwater low

15: River-Out of Catchment: Flow of river beyond catchment outlet through river network to larger scale catchments and to sea